Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Radio B92: Unbiased Civil War Coverage by Serbia’s Own :: Free Essays Online

Radio B92: Unbiased Civil War Coverage by Serbia’s Own Fair and impartial reporting of the Balkan wars in the 1990s was a difficult and lone venture. Almost all of the international media had their own biases due to their countries’ part in the war (through NATO or their proximity to the conflict), their acceptance of parts of Serbian government propaganda, or simply their overly exaggerated partialities against the Serbians because of a common belief that all Serbians were entirely responsible for the war. It is also widely accepted that Bosnia and Serbia’s media, if not influenced or controlled by the government and Milosevic, struggled greatly to remain independent – if that. So, throughout the conflict in the 1990's, Radio B92 was the only independent audio news source. It served as the principal alternative to the government controlled media, especially for the former Yugoslavia, but also to the biased international press. According to Jasminka Udovicki and James Ridgeway, the editors of a book about the fall of Yugoslavia titled Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia: It took almost a century, from the emergence of the South Slavic unification movement in the early nineteenth century to the end of World War I, to create Yugoslavia. It took only a few years to destroy it [. . .] Visions of national liberation and modernization brought the South Slavs [. . .] together at last in 1919. Seventy years later, a retrograde, mythical, antimodern vision tore them apart (11). The fall of Yugoslavia was brought about by brutal military force, but the energy needed to utterly dismantle the country was supplied by the political ethno-kitsch (1). An idea emerging here, one expressed by many, is that Yugoslavia may have been alright, or at least far better off and not torn apart if it were not for Milosevic’s means of gaining political power. While these factions did have their differences, they had coexisted for thousands of years before WWI and Tito, the former leader, was able to keep them together. This idea of â€Å"ethno-kitsch† began around 1987, and involved a sort of new taste for an almost vulgar fascination with Serbian nationalism. According to Udovicki and Ridgweway, it, â€Å"was everywhere in Serbia.† At the root of this â€Å"ethno-kitsch† in the late 1980s was a progressively growing perception that Serbian people had been wronged and were hated – completely undeservedly – by other ethnic groups in Yugoslavia.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Case Of A Complaining Customer – Executive Summary

The new computer system has been installed to provide easy, convenient and time saving services to customers, however it appears that Presto Cleaners may have caused unnecessary unhappy and complaining customers by imply not following a few simple steps, such as making sure their staff was trained appropriately, had tested the system and provided themselves with a backup plan. As a result of this the company now have a unhappy customer who's demanding compensation and need to take appropriate action in whichever way the operations manager feels appropriate to resolve the situation, and what is most beneficial for their company.Why Is Mr. Shelton upset? What should be done toreadors his complaint? On 28 July Mr. Shelton drops off Hess laundry to Preston cleaners. A new computer yester was introduced to him and he was requested to fill out a card, detailing special requirements or services required. A ID number was also request by presto cleaners and also for the customer to purchase a special bag to drop of Hess laundry. Using the new system, Mr. Shelton would now simply just drop of Hess laundry at the store and return to pay, hassle free apparently. Unfortunately when the customer returned to collect Hess clothes he found them to be missing.He felt the old system was quicker and easier and he wasn't happy with the new service and also very angry that Hess clothes was missing. Mr. Shelton was missing 4 shirts, 2 blouses, 1 suit and 1 skirt. Mr. Shelton complains firstly in the store personally and then contacts the store when he hears no information about Hess clothes. He struggles to communicate with anyone at presto cleaners and leaves several voice mails for the company president compensation in the form of full refund for the cleaning, full refund for 4 shirts that he purchases after the laundry goes missing and a full apology.Mr. Shelton clothes have been given to another customer and the only solution the store have is to wait and hopefully the clothes wi ll be returned. Mr. Shelton is very angry and frustrated. As the mistake has been made by presto cleaners they should take full responsibility. The response the customer should have received is being apologized to but the floor staff upon realization that the store had lost the clothes. An empathetic attitude should be shown to him at all times and he has been inconvenience and let down.The customers calls should have been responded to as ignoring him only aggravates him worse, and communicating with the customer keeping him informed of progress even if none.. The store should be checked for the missing items and customers who dad collections on the same day be contacted if possible. An apology should be made to the customer, and a refund for the cleaning service offered. A comprehensive quality improvement upland for Presto Cleaners. Based on the information presented in this case, a massive improvement on their survive quality is necessary. Presto Cleaners thrives to offer custome rs a competitive privet high quality reliable service. ‘ Goal 1: Set up a continuous improvement program, develop a TTS. Goal 2: Refer to theorists to help develop business plans. Trucker's Theory of Business – in brief Trucker characterizes the assumptions that comprise an organization's Theory of Business by stating:†These assumptions are about markets. They are about identifying customers and competitors, their values and behavior. They are about technology and its dynamics, about a company's strengths and weaknesses. These assumptions are about what a company gets paid for.Management to take refresher course in operations and customer service management Goal 5: Company needs to provide total quality management, At its core, total quality management (TTS) is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TTS effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which the y work. The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deeming, Armband V. Figment, Koru Chickasaws, and Joseph M. Curran.Total quality management can be summarized as a management system for a customer-focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the quality discipline onto the culture and activities of the organization. The Primary Elements of TTS are: Customer-focused Total employee involvement Process-centered Integrated system Strategic and systematic approach Continual improvement Fact-based decision making Communications Goal 6: Customer satisfaction and loyalty lead to profit and growth, feedback system to be brought in.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Google Hacking

Google Hacking Abstract: Google hacking is the term used when a hacker tries to find vulnerable targets or sensitive data by using the Google search engine. In Google hacking hackers use search engine commands or complex search queries to locate sensitive data and vulnerable devices on the Internet. Keywords: hacking, hack, Google, Google hack, hacking techniques, attack, ethical hacking, search engines, search engine hacking What is Google Hacking? Google hacking is the term used when a hacker tries to find vulnerable targets or sensitive data by using the Google search engine. In Google hacking hackers use search engine commands or complex search queries to locate sensitive data and vulnerable devices on the Internet. Although Google hacking techniques are against Google terms of service1 and Google blocks wellknown Google hacking queries, nothing can stop hackers from crawling websites and launching Google queries. Google hacking can be used to locate vulnerable web servers and websites which are listed in the Google search engine database. In other words, hackers can locate many thousands of vulnerable websites, web servers and online devices all around the world and select their targets randomly. This kind of attack is most commonly launched by applying Google hacking techniques to satisfy junior hackers. It is obvious that the Google hacking procedure is based on certain keywords, which could be used effectively if they are used by some internal commands of the Google search engine. These commands can be used to help hackers narrow down their search to locate sensitive data or vulnerable devices. Nevertheless, the success of Google hacking techniques depends on the existence of vulnerable sites, servers and devices. However, we should not ignore the power of the search engines in providing information about the targets to the hackers in the reconnaissance phase. Beyond Vulnerability Malicious hackers can use Google hacking techniques to identify vulnerable sites and web servers for known vulnerabilities. In addition, they can look for error pages with the help of technical Page 1 of 8 nformation or retrieve files and directories with sensitive contents such as databases, passwords, log files, login pages or online devices such as IP cameras and network storage. Google Proxy Hackers can use the Google Translate service (http://translate. google. com/translate_t) as a proxy server to visit a website or translate the contents of the website or URLs without leaving any footprints. Figure 1: Google Translate Service. Google Cash Google copies the content of a website in its databa se. This function helps users to access the content of the website if the site is not available. However, a hacker can use this function to access and visit a targeted website without leaving any footprint and in complete anonymity. Figure 2: The red cycle indicates the link to access the Cached page. Page 2 of 8 Directory Listings Web server applications such as Apache and IIS provide facilities that a user can browse and navigate website directories by clicking on the directory name and links such as Parent Directories. The directories and their content can be listed if directory listing or directory browsing are enabled by the administrator. This vulnerability gives an unauthorized access to the files and it may help hackers to gain access to the information which can help them to hack a website or a web server or download its contents. Directory listings make the parent directory links available to browse directories and files. Hackers can locate the sensitive information and files just by simple browsing. In Google it is easy to find websites or web servers with enabled directory listings because the title of the pages start with the â€Å"index of† phrase so we can use index of in the search box to find the directory listings-enabled website. If we want to get better result from our search we can use this combination in the search box intitle:index. of or we can use intitle:index. of â€Å"Parent Directory†. Figure 3: The result of using intitle:index. of â€Å"Parent Directory†. It is obvious that with the first command we used the Google search engine to search in its database for the websites which have been listed with the title of â€Å"Index of†. In the second command we used Google to search for sites with the directory listings and with the keyword which is often found in the directory listings. Specific Directory Hackers can locate specific directories by using the directory name in their search queries. For instance to locate an â€Å"admin† directory in addition to directory listings, the hacker can use these commands: intitle:index. of. admin or intitle:index. of inurl:admin. Page 3 of 8 Figure 4: The result of using intitle:index. of. admin. Specific File It is possible to search for a certain file by directory listings. For instance, to search for the password. mdb file, this search query can be used: intitle:index. of password. mdb . Figure 5: The result of using intitle:index. of. password. mdb. Specific File Extension Google lets users search its database for a specific file extension by using the filetype: command. For instance, if you want to search for pdf files, then you can use the query filetype:pdf in the search box. Server Information It is possible to use Google hacking techniques to determine the version of the web server application along with directory listings. This kind of information is vital to an attacker because it will  © Ali Jahangiri www. alijahangiri. rg Page 4 of 8 help him or her to use the best way to attack the web server. For instance, hackers can use the search query intitle:index. of â€Å"server at† to find the web sites with vulnerable directory listings which are operated by an Apache server. Figure 6: The result of intitle:index. of â€Å"server at†. Different versions of Microsoft IIS servers have wide usage all around the world. It would be easy to find the ser vers which are operated by Microsoft IIS 6. 0 servers, which are listed in the Google database by using the query â€Å"Microsoft IIS/6. server at† on the Google search engine. Error Pages The error pages and warning pages are informative for hackers because these pages could be used to determine the vulnerability of the target. Most of the time hackers use the error messages as keywords or search phrase to find their targets. For instance, if you use â€Å"Syntax error in query expression † –the in the Google search box, you can find the websites which have this error message as an Access error message; this message can display path names, function names and filenames which are helpful for the hackers. Page 5 of 8 Figure 7: The result of â€Å"Syntax error in query expression † –the. Hackers may use Google to locate vulnerable servers by searching for the error pages of web servers such as IIS. The queries intitle:†the page cannot be found†and â€Å"internet information services† can be used to search for IIS servers that present error 404. Default Pages Default pages are major sources of information about targets for hackers. They use Google to find live servers which are on the default page; most of the time, these servers have default configurations with many vulnerabilities. Login Pages The login pages can be use for brute force attacks and gain unauthorized access to the target. In addition, the login pages can be useful to provide information about the target server. For instance, if we use the search query allinurl:†exchange/logon. asp† in the Google search box, we can find the login page of the Microsoft Outlook Web Access. For the typical login page in the web applications or portals which have been programmed by ASP, you can use inurl:login. asp or inurl:/admin/login. asp. Figure 8: The result of allinurl:†exchange/logon. asp†. Locating CGI-BIN Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard protocol for interfacing external application software with web servers. Hackers can use Google to locate the CGI-BIN applications or pages to target. For instance, the search query inurl:/cgi-bin/login. cgi locates the login pages base on CGI-BIN. Online Devices It is possible to create special search phrases to locate online devices such as IP cameras, network storage and printers with Google. In this technique hackers use the default pages or the application names which vendors used for hardware and that have been supplied by vendors.  © Ali Jahangiri www. alijahangiri. org Page 6 of 8 For instance, if you want to locate AXIS Network cameras then you can apply the search phrase inurl:indexFrame. shtml Axis to find online AXIS cameras. Here is another example: to locate online Linksys network storage with the GigaDrive Utility, you can use the search phrase intitle:†GigaDrive Utility† in the Google Search box. Figure 9: The result of inurl:indexFrame. html Axis. Google Hacking Database There is an unofficial website (http://johnny. ihackstuff. com/ghdb. php) which acts as a database for hacking of Google. This database has been used since its creation in 2004 by the Google hacking community. You would be able to develop your own Google hacking database by studying the behaviour of the equipment and identifying the pages, page titles and files which can be cal led and accessed by user and which will be listed in Google. Disclaimer: ? This document is to educate, introduce and demonstrate Google hacking. You should not use the information which has been presented in this document for illegal or malicious attacks and you should not use the described techniques in an attempt to compromise any computer system. Ali Jahangiri operates a policy of continuous development. The information which this document contains reflects his understanding at the time when presented. Ali Jahangiri reserves the right to revise this document or withdraw it at any time without prior notice and states no obligation to update the data included in his document. The contents of this document are provided â€Å"as is†. No warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of solutions and instructions for a particular purpose, are made in relation to the accuracy, reliability or contents of this document. Under no circumstances shall Ali Jahangiri be responsible for any loss of data or income or any special, incidental, consequential or indirect damage s howsoever caused.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Bonsai: Japanese Tree Art Essay

Many people in the contemporary society have always expressed their desire to connect with nature especially by cultivating certain plants in their compounds but the urban living conditions cannot allow. These, especially in towns have little space around their houses for growing flowers or trees and this greatly applies to those who live in apartments which are compacted or multistoried (Pilgrim, par 1). Did you know that one can actually grow trees in his or her house? Thanks to a Chinese ancient Art in tree planting where one can afford to have a tree plant in a pot. This art is called Bonsai. This word is pronounced as ‘bone-sigh’ which if directly translated from Japanese it means ‘tree in pot’ (Kenney, par 1). A bonsai tree is just an ordinary tree which has been sculpted and a healthy one can live for 100 years (Curley, par 1). This essay seeks to trail through the events that have characterized this Art from the time of its inception, the art process, its significance in relation to the society and how it has changed overtime. What Is The History Behind Bonsai Art? China is believed to have been the original home or the birth place of this art which began more than a thousand years ago. It was originally called Pun-sai and it involved growing trees in small pots and one pot could only have one tree. The Chinese Bonsai had twisted branches which resembled different animals for example birds or even reptiles like snakes and other imaginary creatures like dragons which were associated with some legends and myths. The shape of the Bonsai depended on the artist’s imagination. The Chinese regarded trees as the best way of expressing nature and for them, the growing of these trees was one way of bringing tranquility to ones mind (Pilgrim, par 5). Later, in the 12th century around a period called Kamakura, the Japanese adopted it. The exact time that this happened cannot be indicated but it is believed to be around 1195 AD. This happened when Zen Buddhism was being spread in Japan and in the process; the Chinese tradition of Bonsai trees was also spread through some monks who established their monasteries in Japan. They are the ones who were actively involved in the Art thus advancing it. Afterwards, the aristocracy picked up the art as a hobby and it became a sign of wealth thus spreading through the upper class (Hubik, par 1). For the Japanese, they regarded Bonsai as a symbol of honor and prestige and by 14th century, the art was regarded as a highly refined form of art. During those times, the Japanese elite used to have those occasions where they could display their Bonsai trees on special shelves (Hubik, par 1). Originally, many Japanese grew the trees outside their houses but when they decided to throw a party, the trees would be taken inside for people to enjoy the sight (Olsen, par 3). The nobility in Japan perceived Bonsai as peace among three things, that is man, spirit and nature (Curley, par 4). Later, in the 19th century, after spending more than 230 years in isolation, Japan opened its doors to the rest of the world and thus the outsiders accessed this art. Travelers from European countries could not believe what they saw: mature tree plants in ceramic pots and this seemed something worth to adopt. From then onwards, they spread the gospel to other western nations and in 1900, in Paris world exhibition, the art was introduced to the whole world. This was followed by subsequent exhibitions in London and Vienna (Hubik, par 7). Myths Associated With Bonsai Art There are various misconceptions about Bonsai trees. Some people have always misconstrued this Bonsai technique as a dwarfing process. Traditional techniques for growing Bonsai should never be termed as dwarfing of trees which employs certain manipulations which are genetic. Genetic manipulation is not involved anywhere in cultivating these trees but natural seeds are used instead. Other techniques are also employed such as grafting, pruning, defoliation, potting and root reduction (Pilgrim, par 3). Some people believe that, the Bonsai trees are kept that short by some cruel techniques. This is actually not true. In fact, if they are watered well and are exposed to enough air, light and also good nutrition, they can live for long, more than full grown trees belonging to the same species. The techniques are just the same as the ones used on other horticultural plants. Some also hold onto believe that a Bonsai tree is just few centimeters tall which is not true however if compared with their full grown brothers, they are small, ranging between 25 centimeters and 1 meter (Bonsai Site, par. 1). The Process of Bonsai Tree Art Typical plants and trees can make up Bonsai but those which have small leaves are regarded as suitable. In Japan, trees like pine, bamboo and plum have been used. Seeds and cuttings from these trees can be used to develop Bonsai trees and also stunted trees which occur naturally that can be grown in containers. One may ask how they come to be that small. Well, these trees are trained to be small by the process of pruning whereby their branches and roots are trimmed. Other methods include repotting which is done periodically, new growth can also be pinched and if one desires the plant to grow in a particular shape, then one will be required to wire the tree into the desired shape (Bonsai site, par 3). The tree has to have a trunk which is well tapered and should also have branches all over; this is to give it a visual depth (Black, par. 5). The container in which the Bonsai tree is grown is independent from the earth. The tree should not be at the centre of the container. It was always believed that in that container, heaven and earth are one and in the centre is where they meet thus nothing is allowed to occupy that space and that’s why the tree is not supposed to be planted at the centre. Triangular pattern is so much encouraged to add to the beauty. Truth, beauty and goodness are three virtues which are believed to be necessary for the creation of a Bonsai tree (Bonsai Site, par 4). These containers are primarily kept outside excluding those ones for trees which are trained to grow indoors. There are no rules regarding the development of Bonsai because they are personalized by individuals and more so if it is for one’s enjoyment. It doesn’t require so much but ones patience and endurance. A person’s commitment will also force him to dedicate much of his time and skill to the Bonsai tree (Bonsai Site, par 7) Watering of Bonsai is considered the most important factor in the process and it is also a skill to be learnt because watering varies with different Bonsai trees, types of soil used and pots. Always ensure that the trees do not dry out and to check this, one can insert a tooth pick in the soil to see if there is any moisture (Squidoo, par. 2). As mentioned earlier, pruning is also involved but it is usually not done on young Bonsai trees but those ones which have grown a bit. Pruning just involves trimming the tree into a desired shape and thus there is no guideline on how to prune correctly. One should also ensure that the tree is exposed to enough light, if not so artificial light should be provided to compensate for the sunlight which is not available for the plant. Fertilization also depends with the type of Bonsai thus it is not a major requirement in the art. One recommendation is that one is not required to fertilize unhealthy dry Bonsai (Squidoo, par. 7). Repotting is another major caring technique for a Bonsai plant. It is usually done after two years which also depends on the pots size and the growth of the plant. Repotting helps the plant to develop good rooting system and also supplying it with fresh soil (Squidoo, par 7). Bonsai wiring is another technique which is required in this process to shape them. It involves wrapping tree branches and trunks with the wire until the tree is in a position to maintain the shape and that is when the wire can be removed. All these tools which are used in this process can be supplied by anyone who specializes in Bonsai tools. One can use plain silver wire, copper or brown Bonsai wires and if one cannot access these, any other can do so long as it is bendable and can be easily removed. Thicker wires are the most appropriate in Bonsai and if one cannot get these ones, he or she must involve double wrapping (Squidoo, par. 12-13). To sum up, there are no specific guidelines which can apply to all Bonsai trees hence different species of Bonsai need to be treated differently, In Japan, the process is considered to have no end as long as the plant is alive. One is supposed to treat the plant with respect and love and the act of caring for the tree is in itself a meditation (Black, par. 6). What is the Significance of Bonsai Art in Relation to the Society? To the Japanese, they associated the plant with their faith in Zen Buddhism where man and nature are one and are thus joined through meditation and expression. In the modern world however, this process is more of a hobby. This is important as it helps to understand nature and being part of it and also enhancing the beauty of the gardens (Bonsai Site, par 1-2). Bonsai trees have also been regarded as symbols of harmony among three things; that is man, nature and soul while the monks associate them with prestige and honor (Curley, par. 4). The act of shaping the tree and viewing it was understood to be one way of uniting nature and spirit. It also signified the Japanese philosophy and refinement in that, by pruning; the unwanted and unnecessary parts were done away with thus refining the tree. This view is still held in Japan and that is why during every New Year, families in Japan display their Bonsai trees which have been decorated. The ornamentation of the Bonsai to decorate it is referred to as Tokoma (Bonsai site, par 10). Once it was associated with the elite but nowadays, it is observed by all; this is because, the art symbolizes their culture and ideals (Curley, par. 4). How Has The Art Changed Overtime? In the modern world, the art has taken an interesting twist in that; most people have taken it up as a profession (Bonsai Site, par. 3). The art has really developed to new forms where the pot and the tree complement each other in various aspects such as shape, texture and also color. The tree has to be shaped and not left to grow the way it would naturally. These changes have been experienced since the art began in China. The Chinese Bonsai still maintains its ancient styles and shapes which are traditional and sometimes these are usually perceived by the Europeans as crude. The Japanese one is much more natural and pleasing to the eyes because they are well taken care off and refined (Sinonewa, par. 4). They are the ones who perfected this art. Nowadays, Bonsai has taken different styles and shapes. Bonsai which can grow indoors are trained in classical styles which include windswept, slanted trunk among others. The Art which was originally by the Japanese and the Chinese is now practiced around the world and thus it is regarded as a way through which the spirit of nature is imitated (Black, par. 9). Lastly, artists started to incorporate other cultural elements into their plantings such as rocks and even small buildings thus displaying diverse possibilities in styles and thus the Art has evolved reflecting changes in time and tastes. Due to demand of this Art all over the world, artists have resulted to grow young plants, training them to appear the same as the Bonsai. Japanese decided to concentrate on this art and they opened nurseries to grow bonsai trees mainly for export. The range of plants used in this art also increased to suit different world climates and thus countries and cultures can pick up the art without any problem. (Bonsai Site, par. 8). Two modern artists who are involved with this art are Morten Albek and Artists from Austin Bonsai society. Source: Oriental Decor Source: Oriental Decor Work Cited Austin Bonsai Society. Modern Bonsai Artists, 21 March, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010, . Black, Frank. Japanese Bonsai. China Town Connection, 2005. Web May 1, 2010, . Black, Frank. The Art of Bonsai Tree. Ezine Articles, 6 June 2006. Web. 1 May, 2010 . Oriental Decor. Japanese Bonsai Trees. 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010 . Curley. Karen. The Bonsai in Japanese Culture. EHow, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010, . Hubik, Dan. A Detailed History of Bonsai. Bonsai Site, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010, . Kenney, Kim. Definition of Bonsai. eHow, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010 . Mortein, Albek. Modern Bonsai Artist. The Knowledge of Bonsai. Web. May 1 2010 . Olsen, Eric. Bonsai Tree Meaning. Bonsai Gardener, 2008. Web 1 May, 2010, . Pilgrim, Gray. Bonsai Tree History. Hub Pages, 2 March 2010. Web. 1 May 2010 . Sanunewa . Bonsai: Tree, History, Culture, Background. Hub Pages, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010 . Site Bonsai. An introduction to Bonsai, 2010. Web. 1 May, 2010, . Squidoo. The art of Bonsai: the Bonsai tree care, 2010. Web 1 May, 2010 .

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Paul Kennedys arguments on the rise and fall of great powers Essay

In the world’s history, the face of the earth has witnessed power supremacy between various countries and states. All along from the Spanish rein in their days on the sun, the Britain, France and now the US. All this scenes on the globe have a significant impact on the relative powers on the either side. The outstanding issue is not the power but forces behind that power rise, sustainability and its fall. Therefore this essay shall examine the ways of measuring this power sustainability according to the Paul Kennedy’s perspective in his argument on the rise and fall of major world powers. Introduction  Professor Paul Kennedy argues about how predictable and determinable is the raising and declining of the major powers in his book entitled: The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000. In this book he presents the parameters which are used to measure the prospects and indicators of rising and decline of world’s major power. Furthermore, arguments are presented together with empirical studies of the major world powers, which encompass both political and economical dimensions of the Great Powers. This studies rates and discusses the rise and their fall from 1500 to 1980. Additionally, apart from exclusively discussion their rise and fall, his argument goes beyond the prevalent conditions and projects the future of the US, Japan, China, European Economic Commission and USSR. The core of the Kennedy’s argument is that the strength of a power of a nation or a state can only be measured relative to the other existing powers . In this connection, the fundamental issue that he uses as a scale is the fact that major powers rising, falling and their sustainability entirely depend on the available resources and economic durability and military strength relative to its requirements for prospering. Therefore, the argument for measuring the decline or prosperity of a given world power is through military power and its inputs and the economic and productive power. The two measuring devices employed by Professor Paul Kennedy 20 year earlier are the central base for this essay paper. Through use of military and economic propensity this essay shall examine the major world powers their rise and decline. Also related to the Kennedy’s argument is the prediction of the decline of the USSR and US as a major world power or super power , while prediction of gradual but steady raise of china as a major power. The central thesis of Paul Kennedy is that the power of a state needs to be maintained and sustained. Therefore the more the power of a state increases, the more resources shall be needed to maintain. The maintenance of a power should be balance between both in military and economic power . But when more state resources are devoted towards maintaining military power in long term it weakens the power and directs it to the path of decline. While when productivity economy slightly overweighs military expenditure the power is stable and can be maintained. Therefore the key driver of the power of a state entirely relies on the economic component of the power. Thus the main argument is; power can only be maintained by a prudent balance between the creation of wealth and military expenditure. Therefore the essay shall closely look at this argument that emphasizes on the power measuring parameter using the balance between wealthy creation and military expenditure. In order to do this effectively the essay shall evaluate how reliable and valid is the argument basing on the major historical world powers; especially the Germany, France, US, Moguls of India, Ottoman Empire, USSR, China, Japan and Great Britain. Measures for rise and fall of a great power state The countries in this regard power can only be measured and gauged with each other only when their military mighty sustainability costs balances with their economic production or wealth creation through investments or production of gods and services. 0 years earlier Paul Kennedy researched, wrote and interpreted the major world power how they rose over the years into their day on sun and the dark side of their power into decline. Therefore at this point it is worthy to examine how relevant are the two measuring parameter and how realistic are they to today’s reality on our globe, traced from the past and extrapolated into the future. Economic and productive power The key driver of the power of a state entirely relies on the economic component of the power in terms of its productivity. This is because as the government running, planning and execution of the plans depends on the engine of the economy. Most evident is that, British financial strength was the single most decisive factor in its victories over France during the 19th century. Therefore in this argument Professor Kennedy argues that it is possible to detect the rise and fall of different powers in the world by looking at the economic indices. In this regard economic power dictates the power prosperity. For instance the economic dimension is important to maintain the military mighty. In this connection, economic production should overweigh or balance the expenditure to the military sector. For example Spain, Britain, France and Netherlands military expenditure overweighed their economic production that has lead to their declines since then. Addition to that, we can agree today that during the entire 19th to early 20th century the Great Britain was the fore front in the entire world as a great power. The reason for its being on the fore front was the fact that industrial revolution placed it on that position. This is can be empirically evident that Britain per capita grew from 10, 16, 25, 64, 87 and 100 in 1750, 1800, 1830, 1860, 1880, and 1900 respectively. At this time France which was a relative competitor for this great power had its per capita from 9, 9, 12, 20, 28 and 39 in 1750, 1800, 1830, 1860,1880 and 1900 respectively . Therefore gauging at these two difference in the production of the in terms of industrial per capita, it implies that the UK had an upper hand even in financing its major military operations than France therefore can maintain the slot of being major power on the globe . Another indicator that is used to measure the rising and declining power under the economic and productive power; is the relative share of the worlds manufacturing outputs. In this respect, great power states manufacturing output can really determine the peaks and troughs of power. For example UK’s output is1. 9 percent in 1750, then in 1860 it was at 19. 9 percent, and 22. 9 percent in the year 1880. While china’s starts at an index of 32. 8% in 1750 and declines to19. % in 1860, after the Taiping Rebellion and Opium Wars ; then declines further to 12. 5% in 1880. The two combinations give an insight of the power that is capable financially so that it can be able to run its functions effectively. In this light, statistics of war time indicates that during its reign Britain was capable to maintain its war expenditures effectively. Thus in 1688 to 1815 the total wartime expenses were ? 2,293,483,437 , Britain income was pitched at  Ã‚ £ 1,622,924,377. Thus it only had a balance of  £ 670,559,060. But from 1890s the US economy overtook that of Britain and Germany to become the world super power together with other political factors . Thirdly the measures can be in today’s economic environment through the use of the states share of the total world GDP which is a round $45 to $50 trillion. At this juncture Kennedy’s argument predicts the decline of the US as a world super power. Since the share of the US in the world GDP ever declining since 1945 when it over took from Britain. In fact China is a major threat to the US as a world great power. To this effect the statistics indicates that China’s total GDP will be higher than that of the US by 2025, if the trading systems are not interfered with by natural calamities or human caused activities. Military power Military power is necessary to safeguard the overall power and the economic power of the state. Military power is the symbol of real and hard power. All great powers that rose in the face of the earth had a relatively stronger military power that enabled the m defeat major battles and wars. For instance the Germany, France, Britain, Spain and Soviet Union . But that one does not exempt the central thesis of the discussion; power sustainability can only be achieved through a balance between the wealth creation and the military expenditure that do not over stretch the economy of the state. In this regard at the beginning of the 16th century, Spain was the worlds and European great power with excellent armed forces . This made it powerful. But the argument is the measure for this power sustainability; that makes it relative to either prevail or decline. Therefore fort the Spain’s case, this excellent army required sustenance from economic resources. Which were over spent on a higher scale from Spain’s mismanaged resources, deficit budgeting and inflation. Hence in the long run it declined as a major power. The French also saw the same way as Spain at end of the 17th. Whereby France mismanaged its economic resources that was largely used for supporting an increasingly expensive regular armed forces until the period of the American Revolutionary that led to the French Revolution making this expenditures too huge for the economy top support that ended in a bankruptcy ; hence its decline. Britain on the other hand had to have a loan to finance its military campaigns, making it use more of the resources than what it creates as economical input. On the other hand the on his prediction for decline of the US as a major world power in terms of it’s overstretch on the military expenditures, it is evident that US is spending too much on the military. For instance nuclear full-fleet carrier of the US navy that is 20 storey high, that displaces105, 000 tonnes of water. This total expenditure for construction is about $28 billion , which is greatest budget ever in the world’s history. In general, US defense budget only accounts for just over half of total defense expenditure in the world. This together with other reasons makes US ever crisis as a super power. Conclusion The argument of Kennedy Paul about the rise and fall of the world’s greatest powers over human history is to a great extend valid. However it is not 100% accurate and any where in this universe it can not happen. Basing on his central thesis of the argument that; the power measuring parameter using the balance between wealthy creation and military expenditure. The essay has explored these measuring devises used by professor Paul indeed there is some validity in this claims. For instance, china over currently has concentrated on the wealth creation by production and controlled minimal military expenditure: has seen to pose a threat to US supremacy. Therefore whenever the governance system fails to balance there scorecards between the economic output and inputs to sustain military force activities the decline shall be knocking at the door. Whereas the reverse is true.

Aristotle’s views on slavery

Aristotles views on slavery Ancient Greek society generally, and therefore classical Athens, even when it was a ‘democracy’, was bored in slavery, an institution which Aristotle did not consider to be unjust and which he defends in book I of his Politics. This essay will focus on why Aristotle spent so much time on the subject of slavery. Also he claims that woman should not be treated the same as slaves, I would like to discuss the grounds in which he makes this distinction. What is the difference between conventional slavery and natural slavery? And most importantly what is the effect of Aristotle’s argument on conventional slavery? Aristotle’s views on slavery are to the modern mind morally objectionable. Many find them poorly argued and incompatible with more fundamental tenants of his system[1]. Aristotle raises the question of whether slavery is natural or conventional. In his writing he insists that the former is the case. Is theory insists that some people are naturally slave s and some are naturally masters, thus he says: â€Å"But is there any one thus intended by nature to be a slave, and for whom such a condition is expedient and right, or rather is not all slavery a violation of nature?†[2]. It is not hard to answer this question, on the basis of reason and fact. For it is clear that it is necessary for some to rule and other be ruled from the hour of their birth, some are marked for subjection and some to rule. However, it may seem that those who are ruled must be slaves but this is not true at all. It seems clear that in the situation between a slave and a master, the master does not treat the slave as an equal, or as he wishes to be treated, as no one would willingly allow themselves to be enslaved. By implication this would mean that the relationship between ‘master’ and ‘slave’ is an unjust one, which in turn violates Aristotle’s fundamental principal of justice. However Aristotle states that this would o nly be the case if master and slave were indeed truly equal. In fact, however they are not. Because not only is the slave not an Athenian citizen but in addition the master is the superior of the natural slave in a number of respects e.g. possession of reason, wisdom, capacity for autonomous action etc. All of which are qualities that Aristotle associates with ‘humanity’, and all of which in his view are lacking in those who are natural slaves[3]. Aristotle says: â€Å"Where then there is such a difference as that between soul and body, or between men and animals (as in the case of those whose business is to use their body, and who can do nothing better), the lower sort are by nature slaves, and it is better for them as for all inferiors that they should be under the rule of a master. For he who can be, and therefore is, another’s and he who participates in rational principle enough to apprehend, but not to have, such a principle, is a slave by nature. Whereas t he lower animals cannot even apprehend a principle; they obey their instincts. And indeed the use made of slaves and of tame animals is not very different; for both with their bodies minister to the needs of life. Nature would like to distinguish between the bodies of freemen and slaves, making the one strong for servile labor, the other upright, and although useless for such services, useful for political life in the arts both of war and peace. But the opposite often happens–that some have the souls and others have the bodies of freemen. And doubtless if men differed from one another in the mere forms of their bodies as much as the statues of the Gods do from men, all would acknowledge that the inferior class should be slaves of the superior. And if this is true of the body, how much more just that a similar distinction should exist in the soul? but the beauty of the body is seen, whereas the beauty of the soul is not seen. It is clear, then, that some men are by nature free , and others slaves, and that for these latter slavery is both expedient and right.†[4]

Friday, September 13, 2019

Something Trendy in Film Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Something Trendy in Film - Research Paper Example Since that film, other films have worked towards breaking stereotypes and have sought to portray people who happen to be attracted to the same sex, rather than caricatures of a type of human that must fit into a category. The first decade of the century has seen a rise in realistic portrayals of people who happen to be attracted to the same sex rather than conceptualized as gays and lesbians. Stereotyping in film is not a new concept and has in no way been limited to members of the gay and lesbian communities. The way in which film frames many different social groups has created stereotypes that time has had to wash away in order to fully explore the experiences of these groups in American society. One of the most horrific ways in which stereotypes have been created in American cinema was through the ‘blackface’ where African Americans were portrayed with black makeup and white lips, their social position reduced to a comic portrayal and the nature of their character hav ing to fight through the physical manifestations of stereotypical concepts that worked to hide the humanity within them (Benshoff and Griffin 76). Once the ‘blackface’ was wiped away, the social stereotypes varied and struggles were made in order to create realistic portrayals of the members of social groups whose lives had been reduced to specifications made through categorizations. The problem with stereotypes is that while they have a tendency to diminish humanity, they serve a purpose in creating ways in which members of a society can identify themselves and brace themselves against those who are different then themselves. The stereotypes create a standard through which an individual can identify with a group. As an example, a woman who drives a mini-van and wears jeans that are uncommonly high on her hips with a sweater denoting the most current holiday might be termed as a ’soccer-mom’, specifically identifying herself in contrast with a woman who we ars six inch platform heels, a mini-skirt, and a halter top. While no one may actually know anyone who fits into either of these stereotypes, most Americans can identify them with social groups. According to McArthur and Mulvihill, â€Å"If one has proper concern for the other as a real person and shares knowledge for the benefit of relationship, stereotypes and biases will begin to dissolve† (80). While American film has a deep history of stereotyping people who represent African Americans, Native Americans, women, gay and lesbian social groups, the films of the past six years have increasingly begun to show signs of the dissolving of stereotypes associated with people who are attracted to the same sex. A wonderful phenomenon has emerged in which the character of people who are attracted to others of the same sex no longer must affect mannerisms, gestures, and associated tendencies that signal their sexual orientation. The characters that are being developed in modern films are now beginning to be indistinguishable from heterosexual characters, stereotypical effects no longer relevant to the emergence of their portrayals of lives rather than only lifestyles. One of the first portrayals of the social position of gay men in the United States that was made from the point of view of a man who happened to be gay, rather than a portrayal of a ‘gay’ was in Philadelphia (1993) starring Tom Hanks as a man who was a lawyer with a large law firm who contracts AIDS, which